Wall light: Surface-mounted light fixture attached to the wall (includes sconces and girandoles).
Sconce: A sconce is a wall light with one or more branches and a shiny backplate to reflect the candle. Very popular in the 17th century, they were dethroned in the 18th century by the girandole, which was placed in front of a mirror. However, by the middle of the century sconces had made a comeback. These sconces were made from metal, and were often painted or embellished with porcelain flowers.
Girandole: A girandole is a wall light with one or more branches, designed to project light in front of the wall.
Girandoles became the light fitting of choice at the start of the 18th century due to the changing architecture of the time. Chimneys designs began to feature low shelves topped with mirrors. A girandole could therefore be positioned in front of the mirror to reflect the light.
18th-century girandoles were free-standing objects and could be fastened to the overmantel with screws or legs to create the desired effect. They were often matched to the bronzes on the mantelpiece or the andirons. Gilt bronze girandoles, more affordable than their precious metal counterparts, were the most common choice. Girandoles were often found in pairs, designed to balance one another.